School of Biochemistry 
and Microbiology

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LIVER METABOLISM

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This interactive flowchart shows the compartmentation and regulation of some major metabolic pathways in mammalian liver. It is specific for parenchymal cells and other tissues may be different. The reactions are colour-coded: pink for regulatory enzymes, blue for enzymes whose flux is limited by substrate availability, green for enzymes that operate close to equilibrium and yellow where there is insufficient kinetic data to decide. Point (don't click) the mouse at these coloured hotspots to display brief explanations about each enzyme. Click here for detailed instructions.

introduction
metabolic map
lecture 1
lecture 2
lecture 3
lecture 4
self-assessment



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The flowchart is too big to display all at once on most computers, but you should be able to scroll horizontally and vertically across it. Click the white space to return to the top of the chart. If you click some of the coloured hotspots you may be taken to a more detailed explanation, but this feature is still under development and is not complete. You might wish to re-size the message windows if your browser uses very large or very small fonts. Normally the browser removes each message as the mouse moves off the link, but if you press any key it will keep the current message on the screen. You can then drag the window borders to the desired positions with the mouse. Your browser will automatically apply a similar correction to all subsequent messages. Most web browsers will not print the whole map, but click HERE to download a resizable copy in Adobe Acrobat portable document format (.pdf) which can be formatted to fit onto one A4 page. You should be able to print this quite easily.

If you have comments, queries or suggestions, email me at J.A.Illingworth@leeds.ac.uk


glycogen phosphorylase hormone sensitive lipase glycogen synthetase UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase purine metabolism phosphoglucomutase glucose 6 phosphatase glucokinase phosphocholine transferase glycerol kinase diacylglycerol acyltransferase UDP-glucose 4 epimerase glutamine PRPP amidotransferase inositol phosphatidyl transferase phosphatidate phosphatase galactose 1 phosphate uridyl transferase galactokinase PRPP synthetase glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase phosphatidate cytidylyl transferase pentose phosphate pathway phosphohexose isomerase phosphocholine cytidylyl transferase fructokinase glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase glycerol 3 phosphate acyl transferase fructose 1 phosphate aldolase fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase fructose 2,6 bisphosphatase triokinase triosephosphate isomerase aldolase phosphofructokinase 1 phosphofructokinase 2 choline kinase acyl CoA synthetase glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase phosphoglycerate kinase fatty acid synthetase pyrimidine metabolism phosphoglyceromutase acetyl CoA carboxylase orotate phosphoribosyl transferase enolase dihydroorotate dehydrogenase malate dehydrogenase (cytosolic) PEP carboxykinase (cytosolic) HMG-CoA synthase (cytosolic) pyruvate kinase ATP:citrate lyase HMG-CoA reductase malic enzyme (NADP, cytosolic) lactate dehydrogenase dihydroorotase carbamyl phosphate synthetase (cyto) aspartate transcarbamylase glutamine metabolism glutamate:pyruvate transaminase pyruvate porter carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (cytosolic) glutamate:oxaloacetate transaminase (cyto) glutamate porter pyruvate carboxylase pyruvate dehydrogenase acyl CoA dehydrogenase palmitoyl carnitine porter isoprene biosynthesis glutamate:aspartate porter citrate synthase HMG-CoA synthase (mitochondrial) HMG-CoA lyase hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase steroid metabolism glutamate:oxaloacetate transaminase PEP carboxykinase 2 (mitochondrial) aconitase (mitochondrial) tricarboxylate porter malate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial) glutamate dehydrogenase aconitase (cytosolic) malate:oxoglutarate porter isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD, mitochondrial) isocitrate dehydrogenase 2  (NADP, mitochondrial) propionyl CoA carboxylase fumarase (mitochondrial) oxoglutarate dehydrogenase methylmalonyl CoA racemase methylmalonyl CoA mutase dicarboxylate porter succinate dehydrogenase succinate thiokinase porphyrin biosynthesis porphyrin metabolism isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP, cytosolic) fumarase (cytosolic) phosphate porter carbamyl phosphate synthetase (NH3, mitochondrial) adenine nucleotide porter citrulline porter ornithine transcarbamylase ornithine porter arginino-succinate synthetase arginase arginino-succinate lyase regulatory enzymes lack of substrates equilibrium enzymes insufficient data matrix space membrane cytosol