Metabolic Integration

This page describes the integration of carbohydrate, lipid and nitrogen metabolism with the citric acid cycle. It includes the transport of metabolites across the mitochondrial inner membrane, and the main hormonal controls. Neighbouring pages contain further information on the bioenergetic aspects of metabolite transport, and the relevant aspects of control theory. Click here to skip over the detailed contents section.

Detailed table of contents

aconitase (cytosolic)
adenine nucleotide porter
ATP:citrate lyase
dicarboxylate porter
glutamate:oxaloacetate transaminase (cytosolic)
glutamate:oxaloacetate transaminase (mitochondrial)
isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP, cytosolic)
isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (NADP, mitochondrial)
lactate dehydrogenase
malate dehydrogenase (cytosolic)
malate:oxoglutarate porter
malic enzyme (NADP, cytosolic)
PEP carboxykinase 1 (cytosolic)
PEP carboxykinase 2 (mitochondrial)
phosphate porter
pyruvate carboxylase
pyruvate kinase
pyruvate porter
tricarboxylate porter


Historical introduction


(This site is still under construction)

aconitase (cytosolic)
adenine nucleotide porter
ATP:citrate lyase
dicarboxylate porter
glutamate:oxaloacetate transaminase (cytosolic)
glutamate:oxaloacetate transaminase (mitochondrial)
isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (NADP, cytosolic)
isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (NADP, mitochondrial)
lactate dehydrogenase
malate dehydrogenase (cytosolic)
malate:oxoglutarate porter
malic enzyme (NADP, cytosolic)
PEP carboxykinase 1 (cytosolic)
PEP carboxykinase 2 (mitochondrial)
phosphate porter
pyruvate carboxylase
pyruvate kinase
pyruvate porter
tricarboxylate porter


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If you have comments, queries or suggestions, email me at J.A.Illingworth@leeds.ac.uk